The mammalian immune system is a multi-layered system that comprises of the physical barriers, the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against pathogens in humans and facilitates the body’s adaptive immune response. To progress in the field of immunology, it is needless to say that students must have a clear understanding of the innate immune system. The undergraduate’s grasp of fundamental concepts is often hindered by the complexity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathways, a vital component of the innate immune system. In particular, students have difficulty comprehending the spatial and temporal significance of key signalling events.

To address this communication problem, I created a 3D animation depicting the innate immune system through the visualization of the TLR-4 signalling pathway. This will be the first animation to incorporate accurate molecular models of the TLR-4 signalling pathway.

Intended Audience

Students studying introductory immunology


Autodesk Maya 2015, Adobe Illustrator CS6, Adobe After Effects CS6, Adobe Premiere Pro,

Intended Format

Online web video